Zagadnienie Kościoła w kontekście ascetycznym u Marka Eremity

Józef Grzywaczewski



Mark the Ascetic (called also in English Mark the Heremit) represents
the monastic milieu of the fifth century. He wrote about the Church while
discussing other questions. He clearly distinguished heterodox groups and
the Catholic Church. He refuted the theories of the Melchizedekians, Adoptionists, Messalians, Arians and Apollinarians, but especially Nestorians.
Mark considered heretics as people in error and as those who have broken
fidelity to their baptism. He underlined that his own teaching was conformed
to the Christian tradition. In his works, similar points with the teaching
of earlier Christian writers, such as Basil of Caesarea, John Chrysostom,
Evagrius Ponticus, Cyril of Alexandria and Gregory of Nazianzus, should
be noticed. Mark presented the Church as a place of sanctification for lay
people and monks. He proclaimed Christ as God’s Son and as the true Man,
not only a creature having a human body. He highlighted the importance
of the sacraments of baptism and the Eucharist. In Mark’s works, we see
Saint Peter and Saint Paul as good teachers of the divine truth, who gave an
example of the Christian virtues, but there are no references to the position
of the Church of Rome in Christianity. The works of Mark the Ascetic were
popular in late antiquity, especially in the East; they were translated into
several languages. In the West, they were used especially in the time of
controversies between the Catholics and the Protestants.

Słowa kluczowe

Marek Eremita; Kościół; raj; chrzest; heretycy

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