‘Epistemological Diversity’ in Education: Philosophical and Didactic Considerations

Kai Horsthemke

DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.21697/fp.2017.1.18

Abstrakt


Niedawno powstałe, ale już szeroko rozpowszechnione przekonanie utrzymuje, że grupy etniczne i kulturowe mają swoje własne, wyróżniające je epistemologie i że epistemologie także mają płeć, a fakt ten był dotąd przeważnie ignorowany przez dominującą grupę społeczną. Konsekwencją tego przekonania jest pogląd, że badania nad edukacją są prowadzone w ramach obejmujących pewne założenia na temat wiedzy i jej uzyskiwania, nakreślonych przez dominującą grupę i odzwierciedlających jej interesy i historyczne tradycje. Nawoływanie do epistemologicznego zróżnicowania staje się problematyczne, gdy łączy w sobie epistemologiczny pluralizm i relatywizm. Bardzo często argumentacja za innymi, zróżnicowanymi, alternatywnymi, zdekolonializowanymi czy zdemaskulinizowanymi epistemologiami nadal nie rozwiązuje, a czasem wręcz całkowicie pomija istotne kwestie filozoficzne. Co dokładnie oznaczają twierdzenia dotyczące epistemologicznego zróżnicowania? Czy te sposoby ustanawiania wiedzy są w stanie przetrwać próbę krytycznego badania? Ponadto, jaki jest ich związek z tradycyjnymi rozróżnieniami epistemologicznymi, np. między wiedzą a wiarą i między dociekaniami deskryptywnymi a normatywnymi oraz z takimi podstawowymi komponentami epistemologicznymi jak dowód/uzasadnienie i prawda? Niniejszy artykuł analizuje niektóre błędy i mylne pojęcia, które można odnaleźć w nawoływaniu do rozwijania zróżnicowanych epistemologii. Stawiane tu pytanie nie ma na celu jedynie ustalenia, czy słowo „epistemologia” jest lub nie jest poprawnie używane, ale także (co jest znacznie ważniejsze), czy zagadnienia, którymi się zajmuje ta dziedzina filozofii, nie są traktowane pobieżnie lub wręcz całkowicie pomijane.

Słowa kluczowe


badania nad edukacją, zróżnicowanie epistemologiczne, pluralizm, relatywizm

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Bibliografia


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